Two types of Pressure Casting are typically employed in wheel construction, Low-Pressure Casting and Counter-Pressure Casting. In terms of quality and strength, the results are similar between both processes, and are a significant improvement over Gravity Casting. Most OEM wheels are manufactured using Pressure Casting.
Low-Pressure Casting uses air pressure to force the molten alloy into the wheel mold. This causes the molten alloy to pack itself more densely.
Counter-Pressure Casting uses a similar, but opposing process. It involves creating a mild vacuum by which the molten alloy is literally sucked into the wheel mold.
A forged wheel is manufactured from a billet, or a large square piece of solid metal. ... The manufacturing process results in a stronger wheel by eliminating cavities, porosity, and shrinkage. Due to its tighter grain structure, forged wheels are also mechanically stronger, ensuring better wear resistance over time.
Forged rims are made from solid aluminium that are heated to allow pressurized machines to shape the rims. Forged rims gets its name from the process of forging a single piece of aluminium into the shape of the wheel rims. Cast wheels on the other hand are made from aluminium that is melted into the liquid form, and poured into molds.
There are significant advantages to forged wheels such as forged wheels being 3x stronger and 25% lighter which is everything you want in a dedicated race car. The down side is that it costs 3x as much than a cast wheel.
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