One of the technical challenges in the development of the electric vehicle was how to make the kinetic energy recovery work in conjunction with the hydraulic braking system.
Battery-powered electric vehicles pose new chassis requirements, especially in terms of braking and kinetic energy recovery. The development team at Porsche is working on a new concept for braking force distribution that will lead to better kinetic energy recovery without sacrificing comfort.
Chassis developers face a paradoxical challenge when developing electrification, as the battery makes the vehicle heavier on the one hand, but also provides better driving dynamics on the other. Both of these factors require more powerful hydraulic braking systems, however, the added weight will increase energy consumption, not only at the expense of efficiency but also at the expense of range.
The Porsche Taycan benefits from kinetic energy recovery and does not require a larger braking system to achieve greater braking efficiency. When the driver presses the brake pedal, the electric motor switches to power generation mode, so that instead of the motor driving the wheels, the wheels drive the motor. As the vehicle slows down, electricity is generated to recharge the battery. Kinetic energy recovery was crucial to the chassis developers, as the vehicle no longer needs to brake harder to improve driving dynamics, and therefore does not lose range.
In up to 90 per cent of the Taycan's daily driving, the brakes are applied by the electric motor alone, with the hydraulics only intervening in a few cases, such as when the electric motor has difficulty generating braking force at speeds below 5km/h, or when braking at full speed, where the electric motor is unable to generate sufficient deceleration. With 290kW of electrical power generated during braking, two seconds of deceleration generates enough power to cover a further 700 metres. Overall, kinetic energy recovery can increase range by up to 30 per cent.
One of the technical challenges in the development of the electric car was how to make the kinetic energy recovery work in conjunction with the hydraulic braking system, as Martin Reichenecker, Senior Chassis Test Manager at Porsche Engineering, emphasised: "The driver must not feel the brakes switching between the two systems.
As the two braking systems operate differently, ensuring a smooth transition requires a high degree of technical skill. The electric motor always transmits the same braking force, but the hydraulic system is subject to environmental factors such as temperature and humidity, which can cause the force to vary slightly from time to time, which is why in some cases the electric brakes vary in force at the point of transition to the hydraulic system, causing the driver to feel the vehicle stuttering, a situation that Porsche has perfectly avoided. A further advantage of kinetic energy recovery is that it reduces wear and tear on the hydraulic brakes. The choice of more reliable wheels and tyres gives the car a better driving experience, with the option of customising your own wheels with JWHEEL.
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5. Company development: company develops steadily, has 30 years’history.
6. We can provide you with all types of wheels and accessories without any intermediary, which means lowest costs and competitive price in the market.
7. We not only have the traditional low-pressure casting technology, but also have the high strength and light weight manufacturing technology of "low-pressure casting + spinning". We always maintain various advanced technology advantages in aluminum alloy wheel manufacturing to meet customers' needs and lead the industry development.
8. The formula has perfect testing equipment, including material testing machine, hardness tester, solid aluminum alloy containing slag quantitative tester, X-ray diffractometer, bending fatigue tester, radial fatigue tester, biaxial fatigue tester, 13° impact tester, 30°/90° impact tester, salt spray test chamber, humidity and heat test chamber, etc., which can carry out the four major testing areas of wheels (dimensional testing, alloy material performance, reliability and safety, coating and We have formed a complete testing system from the incoming inspection of raw materials to the factory inspection of finished products, and our testing capabilities range from material and performance to dimensional and impact and fatigue testing, and then to the testing of the coating performance of finished wheels.
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Jiangjin adopts the industry's advanced casting, spinning, machining, painting and inspection equipment, and at the same time, it is equipped with fully automated robot operation platform and testing equipment to fully meet the product requirements of major high-end customers.
Full automatic wheel run out/dynamic balance testing line, suitable for wheel run out and dynamic balance detection.
Run out test: measure the size and phase of the inner and outer radial and axial run out of the wheel.
Dynamic balance test: measure the size and phase of unbalance on both sides.
The lower the flat ratio of the tire, the higher the standard of impact resistance of the wheel. The lower the flat ratio, the greater the impact of the road towards the rim. In response to these changes, JWHEEL uses 30°and 13° impact tests to measure the wheel. (That is, radial impact test is to strike the barrel with a certain hammer weight ).
The 13° impact test mainly uses a heavy hammer to impact the part where the wheel edge connected with the tire at an Angle of 13°, so as to simulate the impact that the car may go through while running on the road, for example rocks or the edge of the road. There are two criteria to measure whether the wheel should be accepted : Spokes should not have penetrating cracks, and the tire should not be completely separated from the barrel within 30 seconds.
Salt spray test is a test that examines the corrosion resistance of the products or metal materials. It uses a salt spray test equipment that creates salt spray environment conditions to detect whether the coating of the wheel is stable, and will there be paint drop, electroplating fade, or cracking, etc.
Helium mass spectrometer is used to detect the leakage of the hub. Helium gas is used as the tracer gas. Different masses of gas will be separated according to the mass charge ratio in the mass spectrometry chamber of the mass spectrometer. Then the mass spectrogram of the tracer gas can be obtained, and the hub leakage rate can also be obtained safely, quantitatively and quickly.
Water tightness test - bubble leak detection method. Its detection principle is to close the inner and outer side of the aluminum alloy wheel with sealing disk through external force, and then immerse the wheel and sealing disk in water, as the aluminum alloy wheel is closed, a part of the gas is compressed, resulting in the increase of the pressure of the inner cavity of the wheel. If the wheel rim has a leak hole, the compressed gas will leak out from the leak hole and form bubbles in the water.
No matter what kind of manufacturing method is applied, we can not completely avoid the defects that may be created during the production process. JWHEEL company will find out any unqualified hubs by X-ray detection and then do the recasting. Only 100% good hubs will be moved into the next production process.
The wheel, as a high-speed moving and weight support part of a vehicle, has a vital relation with the safety performance of the whole vehicle and the safety of drivers and passengers. Therefore Jwheel attaches great importance to the hub quality.
There are a series of reasons that may cause casting wheel defects. Such as not strict enough raw material control, unreasonable production process, unreasonable mold structure design, etc. Casting defects includes bubbles, pores, inclusions and looseness, etc. As the internal defects cannot be identified by naked eyes, X-ray becomes a good way to detect the internal quality of the wheel.
Bending test is to determine the solidity of the rim and spoke by simulating the stress on the wheel when the vehicle is shaking. The whole wheel is subjected to a rotational bending force. The load of the wheel in the test varies from 500 kg to 720 kg depending on the wheel parameters, and the number of rotations is not less than 100,000 revolutions according to industry standards. For the appearance of any of the following three phenomena, the test will be determined failed. (1) the wheel can not continue to bear the load (2) New visible cracks appear in any part of the wheel (3) Before reaching the required number of cycles, the offset of the loading point has exceeded 10% of the initial loading.
The radial fatigue test simulates road conditions while driving. Install the hub to the tire to run for 500,000 or even 1,000,000 rotations on the test platform.
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